What is Media Literacy?
The most used definition of Media Literacy was arrived
at by participants at the Aspen Media Literacy Leadership Institute in
1992. It states that media literacy is "the ability to access, analyze,
evaluate, and create media in a variety of forms."
Others have added to this definition, increasing its detail and
specificity. For instance, the Center for Media Literacy modified the
statement for it's MediaLit Kit as follows:
"Media Literacy is a 21st century approach to education.
It provides a framework to access, analyze, evaluate and create
messages in a
variety of forms – from print to video to the Internet.
Media literacy builds an understanding of the role of media in society
as well as
essential skills of inquiry and self-expression necessary for citizens
of a democracy.”
Most of the definitions available share the same core as the AMLLI
definition, so that one will be used as the basis for this website.
Eight Key Concepts
Although media literacy education is only just now beginning to
spread in the United States, it has been a required part of the school
curriculum in Canada for some time now. The Ontario Ministry of
Education, as part of its guide to media
literacy, has defined 8 media literacy key concepts. These concepts
help to create the framework that is necessary for students to analyze
and evaluate the media that surround them.
- All media are constructions. This is arguably the most
concept. The media do not simply reflect external reality. Rather, they
present carefully crafted constructions that reflect many decisions and
are the result of many determining factors. Media Literacy works
towards deconstructing these constructions (i.e., to taking them apart
to show how they are made).
- The media construct reality. The media are responsible for
majority of the observations and experiences from which we build up our
personal understandings of the world and how it works. Much of our view
of reality is based on media messages that have been preconstructed and
have attitudes, interpretations, and conclusions already built in. Thus
the media, to a great extent, give us our sense of reality.
- Audiences negotiate meaning in media. If the media
with much of the material upon which we build our picture of reality,
each of us finds or "negotiates" meaning according to individual
factors: personal needs and anxieties, the pleasures or troubles of the
day, racial and sexual attitudes, family and cultural background, moral
standpoint, and so forth.
- Media messages have commercial implications. Media
awareness of how the media are influenced by commercial considerations,
and how they impinge on content, technique, and distribution." Most
media production is a business, and so must make a profit. Questions of
ownership and control are central: a relatively small number of
individuals control what we watch, read and hear in the media.
- Media messages contain ideological and value messages. All
products are advertising in some sense proclaiming values and ways of
life. The mainstream media convey, explicitly or implicitly,
ideological messages about such issues as the nature of the good life
and the virtue of consumerism, the role of women, the acceptance of
authority, and unquestioning patriotism.
- Media messages contain social and political implications. The
media have great influence in politics and in forming social change.
Television can greatly influence the election of a national leader on
the basis of image. The media involve us in concerns such as civil
rights issues, famines in Africa, and the AIDS epidemic. They give us
an intimate sense of national issues and global concerns so that we
have become McLuhan's Global Village.
- Form and content are closely related in media messages. As
Marshall McLuhan noted, each medium has its own grammar and codifies
reality in its own particular way. Different media will report the same
event, but create different impressions and messages.
- Each medium has a unique aesthetic form. Just as we
pleasing rhythms of certain pieces of poetry or prose, so we ought to
be able to enjoy the pleasing forms and effects of the different media.
From the Center for Media Literacy